Bowling2U

Bowling – The Game

Description of the game

What is Bowling (or ten pins)

Bowling, sometimes called tenpins, is an indoor game played on a polished wooden or synthetic floor by individuals or teams. Bowling is most popular in the US where more than 80 million people actively participate.

In the US game contestants roll balls, which have two or, commonly, three finger holes for gripping, toward ten 15-in. wooden pins. The pins are arranged in triangular formation, with the headpin 60 ft. from a foul line. The balls, made of a variety of materials are 8.5-in. in diameter and must not weigh more than 16 lb. The bowler, who rolls the ball underhand, has a runway at least 15 ft. long from which the ball may be released.

A bowling game is divided into 10 frames: the object of the game is to knock down all of the pins on the first or, if necessary, the second of the 2 rolls allowed in each frame. Each pin that is knocked down counts as 1 point. Knocking down all the pins with the first ball is called a strike and is scored as 10 points plus a bonus determined by the total points gained in the next 2 rolls. If a bowler should continue to roll only strikes throughout the game (a total of 12 attempts, because 2 bonus tries are allowed in the tenth frame), the result would be a rare prefect game 300. If 2 deliveries are needed to knock down all of the pins in a frame, the outcome is called a spare. A bowler is then awarded points plus a bonus of the score on the next roll. If a spare is made in the final frame, one extra roll is allowed and that is added to the score.

Objects used for a game similar to bowling, which date from 5200 BC, were found in the tomb of a young Egyptian boy. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, bowling in Europe was a religious ceremony, participants tried to hit the pin, or kegel (hence the word kegling for bowling) in order to be judged free of sin. The Italian version of bowling, Bocce, which is still played today, is somewhat similar to “Lawn Bowling”, an English game originating over 800 years ago. In Europe, it was played with 9 pins. Dutch colonists brought bowling to America in the 17th century. The game consisted of 9 pins set in a triangle. It was regularly played in an area of New York City still known as “Bowling Green”. The tenth pin was added according to popular legend, to circumvent a ruling in the 1840’s by the Connecticut Legislature, which outlawed nine-pins because of widespread gambling in the game. Bowling was an outdoor game for most of its history; indoor bowling became popular in the mid-19th century.

Organization

The American Bowling Congress (ABC), founded in 1895, is the governing body for tenpins. The ABC standardized rules and the scoring method, and it also organized the fast U.S. national bowling tournament, in 1901. Each year the ABC sponsors nationals in singles, doubles and five-man team competition for its members, whose numbers exceeds 5 million. The Women’s International Bowling Congress (WIBC) was founded in 1916 and has grown to 3.5 million members. The Professional Bowlers Association was organized in 1958 to promote exhibition and arrange major tournaments. Interest in bowling, particularly in the United Slates, had its major spurt after World War II.

The introduction of the first automatic pinsetter in Brooklyn, N.Y. in 1952 was responsible for much of this growing popularity. Previously, pins were set by young boys, and Bowling Alleys, as the establishments were called, often had poor reputations. The modern game, however, promoted in part by competition on television, is a booming family sport. There is virtually no age limit for the active bowler.

History of the game

History of Bowling

The International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame has replicas of artifacts for a game similar to bowling which were found in the tomb of an ancient Egyptian youth who died approximately 5,200 BC. Ancient Polynesians rolled stones at objects from a distance of 60 feet (18.29 meters) – the same distance as from foul line to headpin.

During the 3d and 4th centuries, bowling was a religious ceremony for determining absence of sin. German parishioners had to roll or throw an object at a pin or kegel (derivation of the word kegler for bowler) to avoid performing an act of penance.

The earliest known legislation against bowling dates to 14th Century England. The sport had become so popular that people were neglecting the archery practice necessary for national defense during the 100 Year War (a misnomer, since it actually lasted from 1337 to 1453). Both King Edward III who reigned from 1327-1377 and King Richard II (1377-1399) banned the game. From Europe to America, bowling has been banned throughout the world for the “evil it leashes on society.”

A life size diorama at The International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame portrays Martin Luther bowling on the single lane at the side of his home. A brochure from the Museum states that Luther, an avid bowler, “once preached a sermon which, if put into bowling vernacular, proclaimed we all strive for perfection in life. But if we roll a gutterball, all is not lost.”

Dutch Colonists brought bowling to America in the 17th century. The game consisted of nine pins set in a triangle. It was regularly played in an area of New York City still known as “Bowling Green”.

In 1841, Connecticut banned “bowling at the game of ninepins” because of widespread gambling. Other states followed suit. It is popularly believed that today’s game of tenpins was devised to circumvent the laws against the game of ninepins. An outdoor game for most of its history, indoor bowling became popular in the mid-nineteenth century after the introduction of indoor lanes in New York in 1840.

Milestones:

  • 1875 – Eleven New York area clubs meet to create rules and some standardization of equipment. No significant impact since no agreement could be reached on the width of the lane or size of the pin.
  • 1892 – Women were known to be active participants and even bowled in a separate event at the 1907 ABC tournament.
  • 1895 – American Bowling Congress organized at Beethoven Hall in New York City. Maximum score established at 300. Previously, it was 20 balls with a top score of 200. Distance between pins was set at 12 inches. The original organizers represented New York City, Brooklyn, N.Y. and Buffalo, N.Y. The following year Cincinnati, Boston and Lowell, Mass. were represented and letters of interest were received from Chicago, St. Louis, Wheeling, W. Va., Kansas City, Mo. and Quebec, Canada.
  • 1900 -1910 – ABC’s relevance and credibility were tested often in a power struggle between the east (New York) and west (Chicago). Among other issues, New York, accustomed to infrequent competition wanted dues to be $1 per league. Chicago, which had regular league sessions favored $1 per team.
  • 1902 – Ernest Fosberg of Rockford, Ill. becomes first to roll ABC-approved 300 in five-man league play.
  • 1903 – E. D. Peifer of Chicago inaugurates a handicap method for bowling. Previously, all competition was on a “scratch” (actual score) basis.
  • 1905 – First hard rubber ball developed; maximum ball weight set at 16 pounds. Previously all balls were made of “lignum vitae”, a hardwood.
  • 1906 – Brunswick-Balke-Collender opens factory to make wooden bowling balls.
  • 1906 – The east seceded from ABC and organized its own group. Fourteen years later, they returned to the flock.
  • 1906 – ABC refuses to allow women to be members.
  • 1916 – The WIBC founded.
  • 1916 – ABC amends its constitution, limiting its membership to white males only.
  • 1920 – Prohibition law leads to increase in bowling as proprietors discover that patrons want to bowl, even if they can’t drink.
  • 1922 – Alley owners and employees placed in separate membership class. In 1929 the “class”; was expanded to include those with financial interests, instructors or those who received pay for services. The possibility these people could improve with free practice was the crux of the rule. It was voted out in 1948.
  • 1928 – Rule requiring alleys to eject gambling types adopted and bowlers warned that any involvement would result in expulsion. In 1976, the rule was virtually eliminated since casino properties in Las Vegas and Reno could not even sponsor teams.
  • 1930 – Jenny Kelleher, Madison, Wisc. rolls first WIBC-approved perfect game.
  • 1939 – Rule requiring annual inspection and certification of lanes is adopted.
  • 1939 – National Negro Bowling Assoc. founded (subsequently changed to The National Bowling Association, Inc.
  • 1941 – ABC Hall of Fame instituted. (Only baseball and golf have older Halls of Fame.)
  • 1941 -1945 World War II significantly impacts bowling. The military built 4,500 alley beds on bases as a major source of recreation. It was the first exposure to bowling for countless servicemen and women.
  • 1948 – Brunswick introduces dots and arrow markers to their lanes, dramatically improving accuracy for most bowlers.
  • 1950 – After a bitter fight with activists from the labor and religious areas which lasted several years, ABC removes “white only”from its constitution.
  • 1958 – The Professional Bowlers Association (PBA) was founded by Eddie Elias, an Akron attorney and television sports interviewer. There were 33 charter members.
  • 1959 – The Professional Women Bowler’s Association becomes the first organization for professional women bowlers. It is no longer operating.
  • 1962 – American Wheelchair Bowling Association formed.
  • 1978 – J. Elmer Reed, a pioneer of the National Negro Bowling Association, becomes first black inducted into the ABC Hall of Fame.
  • 1981 – Ladies Pro Bowlers Tour formed.
  • 1982 – Young American Bowling Alliance formed through merger of the American Junior Bowling Congress, Youth Bowling Assn. and the ABC/WIBC collegiate divisions.
  • 1993 – ABC removes “male only” from its constitution pursuant to threats from women activists.

Scoring the game

Scoring Bowling

How to Keep Score

Score keeping in bowling is as simple as adding up the number of pins that you knock down. As each player takes a turn they try to knock down all ten of the pins. Each player is given up to two opportunities to do this. The player will roll their bowling ball (find a bowling ball) down the bowling alley towards the pins in an attempt to knock pins over. The pins that are knocked down on this first attempt are counted and recorded. The pinsetter at the bowling alley will remove the pins still standing, clear the leveled pins, then return the standing pins back in place. The bowlers ball is returned and the bowler gets a second attempt at knocking the pins over. The bowler again rolls their ball down the alley to try and knock any remaining pins down. The number of pins knocked down on this second attempt is then recorded. The bowlers score is then the pins from the first roll, plus the pins from the second roll, then added to any previous score.

Basic Score Keeping

In score keeping a game of bowling each set of ten pins is called a frame and an entire game has ten frames. The object of each frame in bowling is to knock over all ten pins, and the object of the game is to have a high score.

In this first example (frame 1) when John rolled his first ball he knocked down 6 pins, on the second ball he knocked down 2 pins and his total score is 8 (6 plus 2).
In this second example (frame 2) when John rolled his first ball he knocked down 7 pins, on the second ball he knocked down 1 pins and his total score is 16 (7 plus 1 plus 8 from frame 1).

Bonus Scoring

When a bowler accomplishes the the goal of each frame by knocking over all ten pins they are awarded a bonus. This bonus that is awarded will depend on whether they knocked all ten pins down on their first ball roll or the second roll.

The Strike

When a bowler knocks all ten pins down on the first ball roll they are said to have rolled a strike. The score keeper will mark an X for that frame and the bowlers score is the ten pins that they just knocked down plus they get to add to that what they knock down on their next two ball rolls. Consequently, you may not know what a bowlers score is on that frame for up to two more frames!

In this third example (frame 3) when John rolled his first ball he knocked down all ten pins. His score is marked by placing an X in the first ball square. We still don’t know what John’s score for frame 3 is until he rolls his next two balls.
In this fourth example (frame 4) when John rolled his first ball he knocked down 9 pins, on the second ball he knocked down 0 (note the dash). We can now go back and score frame three at 35 (16 from frame 2 plus ten from frame 3 plus 9 from the first ball and zero from the second ball). We can also score frame 4 at 44 (35 from frame 3 plus 9 on the first ball and 0 on the second ball) since no bonus scoring was earned in frame 4.

The Spare

When a bowler knocks all ten pins down on the second ball roll they are said to have rolled a spare. The score keeper will mark a / for that frame and the bowlers score is the ten pins that they just knocked down plus they get to add to that what they knock down on their next ball roll. Consequently, you will not know what the bowers score is until the next frame!

In this fifth example (frame 5) when John rolled his first ball he knocked down 8 pins, on the second ball he knocked down the remaining 2 pins. His score is marked by placing an 8 (for the first ball) and a single slash (for the second ball) indicating the John scored a spare in frame 5. We still don’t know what John’s score for frame 5 is until he rolls his next ball.
In this sixth example (frame 6) when John rolled his first ball he knocked down all ten pins (a strike). We can now go back and score frame five at 64 (44 from frame 4 plus ten from frame 5 plus 10 from the next ball thrown. We still don’t know what John’s score for frame 6 is until he rolls his next two balls.

Scores continue to accumulate as each bowler takes turns (frames) until all ten frames have been played by each bowler. If a bowler should get a strike or a spare in the 10th frame, the bowlers scoring continues as the bowler throws their bonus shots. The bowler who throws a strike in the tenth frame must roll two additional balls to complete the score for the tenth frame. The bowler who throws a spare in the tenth frame frame must roll one additional ball to complete the score for the tenth frame.

In bowling a perfect game will score “300” pins, you roll ten strikes, one for each frame, and then two bonus shots at the end are also strikes.